The Institute was established in March 1st, 1954, in Ankara as a National Specialization Institute under the General Directorate of Agricultural Affairs with the purposes of performing studies about "Soil Survey, Classification and Mapping in Turkey; Soil, Fertilizer, Water and Plant Analysis; Determining the suitability of Soils in terms of Irrigation and Soil Salinity, Alkalinity and Reclamation; Protection of Soil Fertility and Utilization of the Soils at Optimum Level" in accordance with the law number 3.203 of the organization and duties of the Ministry of Agriculture.
In accordance with Article 2 of Law number 7.454, the Institute which was embodied in the General Directorate of Soil-Water, had taken the task of Soil Survey and Mapping in Turkey and had continued to carry out its duties from its establishment until May 1961. The Institute further had been reverted to the Ministry of Agricultural Affairs with regards to transfer of The General Directorate of Soil-Water to the Ministry of Agricultural Affairs in accordance with Article 3 of law number 613.349, dated 16.7.1964. The Institute was embodied again into The General Directorate of Soil-Water in accordance with the decision of the Council of the Ministers', dated 05.18.1970 with the law number 7/691.
The Institute had carried out its duties in the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Rural Affairs from 1984 to 1993. From 1993 to 16.03.2005 it has functioned under General Directorate of Rural Services which was established by law number 3.202 in 1984. General Directorate of Rural Affairs was affiliated to the Prime Ministry with the Presidential Approval, dated 07.07.1993 and numbered 39-08/D-1-93-335. General Directorate of Rural Affairs was reverted again to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs in 2003 then the Institute carried out its duties under this General Directorate till its abolishment in 2005.
Soil and Fertilizer Research Institute was assigned to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs in accordance with Law No. 5286 dated 13.01.2005 then with the approval of The Ministry dated 11.04.2005 was affiliated to The General Directorate of Agricultural Researches.
Soil and Fertilizer Research Institute was merged with Soil and Water Resources Central Research Institute in Ankara with the approval of the Ministry, Law number 256, dated 03.28.2007. After the Institute was converted to Central Research Institution by the approval of the the Ministry, Law number 285, dated 09/04/2007, was renamed as Soil Fertilizer and Water Resources Central Research Institute.