1- DETERMINATION OF THE ECONOMIC COMPETITIVINES OF FODDER CROPS IN ERZURUM (TAGEM / TA /03 /04 /01 /008)
The aim of this study
was to reveal the economic competitiveness of the forage crops against other
field crops, especially cereals, in Eastern Anatolia region of Turkiye,
reported to be the most suitable region for animal production regarding climate
and geographical structure. Study was conducted in 2003 and 2004 in Erzurum. District
and villages where forage crops and other field crops were cultivated
intensively were selected purposively. The data used in this study were
obtained from the randomly selected farms in these villages. In selection of
the farms it was accepted to study with 95% of significance level and an error
limit of 10% of population average. Face to face farmer interviews resulted in
176 completed questionnaires. Analysis of the data revealed that gross revenue
was positive in dry bean, sunflower, pasture, wheat and sugar beet in irrigated
conditions as was in pasture, alfalfa and sainfoin in rainfed conditions.
Moreover, in case of use in animal production an increase in amount of 1070 million,
750 million and 580 million TL per hectare were calculated in forage crops,
barley and pasture respectively. Accordingly, it was concluded that unless
forage crops were used in animal production they were not feasible to farm at
existing technology level of the farmers.
2- AGRICULTURAL-NONAGRICULTURAL ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS LEVEL OF FARMERS IN VEGETAL PRODUCTION IN ERZURUM (TAGEM /TA/11/06/04/001)
Human being has to keep animals and grow crops to feed him/her for living. In all attempts for agricultural production, undutiful behaviors have brought about infertility and loss of natural resources. Concerning to feeding rapidly growing population has directed producers to intense chemical use to achieve maximum yield per production unit. This phenomenon, at the end, has started to threaten human health and environment. However, human being is very late to understand the limits of the threats growing and that it is not possible to substitute the natural resources. Thus, the environmental consciousness has only recently flourished to stop the deterioration.
Determination of individuals' environmental consciousness and sensibility in any region provides a framework for action to be taken for the protection of nature. In this study it is aimed to determine the margins of the countryside in city of Erzurum, hence different sample size of two agricultural production groups (field-garden) is calculated separately by using simple random sampling technique. The data from the survey of number of 350 is evaluated.
As a result of this study, according to the developed environmental index it is determined that group with the intense production of arable crops has both low environmental and low non-environmental consciousness (%42,6-%51,8 respectively) and the group with the intense production of garden plants has intermediate environmental (45.8 %) and low non-environmental (41.9%) consciousness.
According to the results of the investigation, it Is concluded that environmental and non-environmental consciousness of the participants diverge due to their age and educational background whereas remain same with different financial income and size of enterprise In addition, Hence the presence of environmental consciousness could be mentioned where there is an engagement with agriculture. Yet, it is deduced that there is not a straightforward relevance with agricultural-environmental sensibility.
In this study, due to the indications it is observed that the reason of the agricultural production is the encouragement of the producers rather than aiming protection of the environment. In addition, it is concluded that vegetative production is not economically significant. The apprehension of the individuals about the environment is not prevalent; therefore there is not any-positive or negative participation of the countryside residents. This is because of the lack of l awareness environmental problems. However, it is expected them to face with this fact in a short time. For this reason, education and publishing activities should be accelerated and then agricultural strategies and policies should be developed.
3- THE EFFECTS OF PHOSPOROUS AND BAKTERIA APPLICATIONS ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS ON FORAGE PEA CULTIVARS (TAGEM /TA/ 11/11/01/002)
In this study, carried out in 2011-2012 for two years in Erzurum, was aimed to determine the effects of different phosphorous rates (0, 30 and 60 kg/ha P2O5) and bacteria genotypes (control and phosphate solvent) on yield and yield components of some fodder pea cultivars. The experiment was established in Randomized Split Blocks Trial Design with three replications. In the study, were used Kirazli (semi-leafless) and Urunlu (leafed) pea cultivars, Arthrobacter agilis bacteria and triple superphosphate 0-45-0 fertilizer. Plant height (PH), lodding score (LS), fresh and dry herbage yields (FHY and DHY), number of pods per plant (PPP), number of seeds per pod (SPP), seed yield (SY), 1000 seed weight (SW), harvest index (HI) and biological yield (BY) were investigated. According to the results, SY, BY, FHY, DHY varied between 1078-2109 kg/ha; 3612-4518 kg/ha; 11037-13935 kg/ha; 2305-2906 kg/ha respectively. Also, LS and HI were found 25,2-37,2% and 15,2-26,6% respectively. On the other hand, PH, PPP, SPP and SW were determined between 54,4-72,1 cm; 6,5-7,8; 5,4-6,3; 182,3-200 g respectively. No response was observed for phosphate fertilization since the soils of experiment plots were rich of this nutrient. It was concluded that semi-leaved Kirazli cultivar was more suitable for the regional conditions.
4- ADAPTATION OF SOME HORSEBEAN (Vicia faba L.) GENOTIP IN ECOLOGY OF ERZURUM (TAGEM/TBAD/12/A03/P01/004)
In Erzurum province, the study area, the main source of livelihood is animal production which is mainly dependent on natural grasslands. Over stocking rate and early grazing are important problems causing heavy degradation in natural grazing lands. Tackling these problems requires an increase in forage production and grazing land improvement and management studies. Also, another common problem is the gap in quality roughage production. During harsh and long winter period it is difficult to feed the farm animals with sufficient and balanced diets. In order to alleviate these problems new forage crops should be introduced to the existing production pattern along with the measures to be taken to preserve the grazing lands from degradation due to any reason. In fact, introduction and considering the new crops to/in existing production pattern is said to be a necessity since production pattern is expected to be modified in time due to changing climatic conditions.
Like all legumes horsebean is a good rotation crop. It is a good source of protein because of high protein content of its grains. It can be used as fresh or dried. Because of high nutritive value it is used as food and feed considering the grain size. In this study, it is aimed to reveal the adaptability of horsebean, an important legume, to Erzurum ecological conditions through adaptation trials regarding a number of aspects such as winter and drought hardiness and tolerance to pests and diseases.
5- THE INVESTIGATION OF THE POSSIBILITY OF GROWING SOME FORAGE PEA GENOTYPES IN SUMMER AND WINTER TIME IN ERZURUM (TAGEM/TBAD/12/A03/P01/005)
In Turkey and especially in Eastern Anatolia animal production is experienced as mainly dependent on natural grasslands. Due to early grazing in the springs and high stocking rate throughout the grazing period natural grazing lands have been degraded over time and so the necessity for grazing land improvement studies and increasing the quality roughage production for a sustainable animal production is one of the high priority challenges. One of the most important problems regarding animal production is that farm animals cannot be fed with sufficient and balanced diets especially during the long and harsh winter period when animals should be kept inside for about 6 months. So, along with grassland improvement studies, it is also necessary to increase quality roughage production and to consider annual forages in forage farming programs seriously. In Turkey, the most common forages are alfalfa, sainfoin and vetches regarding their acreages. In addition, although it is known that other forages such as Sudan grass, maize, cowpea, grass pea etc. their acreages are not so significant to consider. Annual legumes and so cowpea should be preferred as an alternative crop since it has an important potential in making use of fallow lands, in improving the soil characteristics and in producing roughage and concentrate feed, as it does not occupy the field in a long time like perennial crops and does not change the pursuit production model.
It is a fact that cowpea used to be grown and known as "külür or kürül" in the past for food and animal feed. It is also known that it has a higher yield potential under rainfed conditions when compared to Hungarian vetch. So it is obvious that studies towards increasing cowpea production and breeding should be given high priority in the agenda. In brief, the essence of this study is to investigate the possibility of winter sown cowpea production and also emphasize the importance of its introduction to the production pattern.
6- SITUTATION OF AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATION AND THEIR PROBLEMS AND SOLUTION TO DETERMINE IN ERZURUM (TAGEM/TEAD/14/A15/P02/006)
At the present time, in the face of increased competition due to industrialization and the small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises, farmers' organizations to survive and realize profitable production and increasing the effectiveness of unions at every stage from production to marketing, competitive in providing the agricultural production of sustainability must provide. Agricultural organization is such as agricultural extension, rural development and income distribution studies provide convenience to ensure a more equitable sharing for producer. Especially in the 1980s, many problem emerged such as the deepening of the economic crisis, rising unemployment, social exclusion and poverty the spread. After 1980s, increase of globalization and privatization, decrease of public sector uncover that producers establish unity or cooperatives finding a solutions to social problems. Because, Organization provides a major contribution to national economies.
The purpose of this study is determine that situation of agricultural organization, problems of agricultural and solution proposals of theirs. In this study, agricultural enterprises in the province of Erzurum have been examined. 8 districts where consist of east, west, north and south, intensive agricultural activities, have been determined by purposeful sampling method in Erzurum. This study's sample size have been determined benefiting from the farm account data network register system data of agricultural enterprises with simple random sampling method. The numbers of persons surveyed have been distributed to in proportion to the villages. The primary data for the study was obtained from the questionnaire survey conducted in the chose villages. The data was analyzed by factor and probit regression analysis method.
According to the analysis carried out with the data gathered, tractor at 1%, total land amount, having sufficient information about cooperative and finding agricultural organizations problematic at 5%, desire to immigrate and age of producer at 10%, which are in model for P value, became sensible. The age of the producers or in other words the agricultural producers that are members of the organization, desire to immigrate and resolving of the problems in the organization, the amount of land they have, having sufficient information about cooperatives and increase in the number of tractors affect positively their membership to the organization. As a result of the study, solutions for organizing are suggested.