In the industrial plants branch, research are being conducted on potato, sugar beet, oil crops, medicinal and aromatic plants .
The scope of activities related to the potato "Eastern Anatolia Region Potato Breeding Project" are being carry out. The goal of this project is, improve new potato varieties suitable for regional conditions, high yielding, good quality, early and biotic / abiotic stress resistant. Also selection of adapted potato varieties by screening yield and yield components and certified seed potatoes production at basic level, are carry on with this project.
Eastern Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute Tissue culture laboratory was established in 1988. It has been widely used in clonal micro-propagation of industrial plants throuhg meristem-tip culture. The most important application of meristem culture is in the production of virus-free basic potato seed, rapid propagation of potato varieties/breeding clone, long term storage and also in the germplasm maintenance of potato.
"National Development of Potato Seed Production System" project, carried out with the support of public project of TUBITAK 1007 between 2005-2009, provided infrastructure support for tissue culture laboratory. In this way, our tissue culture laboratory capacity has been set at 20.000 mini tubers per year which can meet the demands for special-purpose.
Sunflower, safflower and rapeseed adaptation studies conducted under oil seed crops. Soapwort and licorice, collected from the nature, have been successfully cultivated under Medicinal & Aromatic Plants Research.
On sugar beet, the experiment studied the effect of three harvest times (1st and 3rd week of October, 1st week of November) on root and digestible sugar yield changes. The research was performed at Erzurum located on the East Anatolia region of Turkey during 2013-2014. Sugar beet cultıvar (15 units) were obtained from private seed companies (Beta, KWS and Syngenta).
1- The effect of different photoperiod applications and growth regulators on in vitro microtuberization of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) (2002-2006)
Micro-tubers production hase been planned in the laboratory to eliminate the factors that limit the seed production of our region and our country and also produce uninterrupted seed production of four seasons. In vitro microtuber production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cvs. Granola and Pasinler-92 were studied on solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium applying different plant growth regulators and two different photoperiodic regimes. In this study, the highest number for microtuber and yield obtained from Pasinler-92 cultivar with hormone JA and short day photoperiod (illumination intensity at 2000 lx for 8 hours light per day and temperature at 22˚C ± 2˚C,).
2- Eastern Anatolia region integrated crop management research of some important medicinal and aromatic plants (2002-2007)
This study was aimed to to determine the type of distribution area of Gypsophila bicolar (Coven), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (meyan) and Rhus coriaria L. (sumac) existing in Eastern Anatolia Region in order to protect this species and populations, develop new varieties by selecting quality plants of this type (plants with high rates of active substance) . And also develop products that can be exported and to provide alternative products to Turkish agriculture. This plants collected from nature . The results of this study showed that mean root weight of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. 808.74 to 326.42 g, dry root weight, 596.24 to 190.84 g, number of stem branches of 9-2 units and root length ranged between 90-75 cm and mean root weight of Gypsophila bicolar L. 1788,70-220,95 g, dry root weight 559,92-72,01 g, number of stem branches of 7-2 units and root length ranged between 85-49 cm.
3- The effects of different pre- shooting and haulm killing dates on yield and yield components of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)
In Erzurum haulm killing is used in seed potato production primarily to control soil-borne or seed-borne diseases and regulate tuber size. The most common haulm killing method is mechanical-chemical. The time of pre shooting, planting and haulm killing (when no more than 5% of the crop tubers were over 50 mm in size) are 10 april, 1 st week of may, 20 October respectively. The time between destruction and harvest (10-15 day interval) is important in terms of both ease harvest and periderm maturity, depending on the cultivar
4-Determination of the best suitable hilling time, hill height and planting depth of potato in Erzurum-Pasinler ecological condition
In this study, planting depth and hilling height of potato determined as 10 and 15 cm respectively . And also hilling was made soon after planting. Deeper planting depth may provide better soil moisture, less green and surface-exposed tubers, and occasionally, larger tuber size and higher market yields. The disadvantages of deeper planting may include delayed plant emergence and development, yield reductions, and a likely increase in the soil volume that harvesters would have to lift.
5-Monitoring aphids (homoptera: aphidoide) species, their population changes and some relationship between green peach aphid (Myzus Persicae (sulzer)) and potato leaf curl virus spread in Erzurum
This study was conducted in order to determine virus vector aphid species in seed and commercial potato fields of Erzurum province. A total of 34 winged aphid species have been identified. Out of 34 species, 14 have been determined as vectors for potato virus disease transmission. Aphis fabae and
Myzus persicae accounted for 47% of total collected aphids, with each amounting to 24,2 and 22,7 percent respectively. Green peach aphid (Myzus Persicae) is the most important insect pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and is known as a vector of several virus (PLRV) diseases. It was found that, PLRV infection increased with Myzus persicae number increases.
6- Determination of the effects of different haulm killing dates on mycoplasma (phytoplasma) disease, yield and yield components of potato plants in Erzurum-Pasinler ecological conditions
Mycoplasma disease, seen since 1983, has been epidemic and disrupt the cultivation of seed potatoes in some years at East Anatolia region. This disease occurs from August as intense in potato fields. This study was conducted in order to determine relationship of different haulm killing dates with mycoplasma disease. According to the results obtained, it was found a linear relationship between disease and yield. Haulm killing applications with 10-day intervals results showed that potato yield decreased by 700-1000 kg/da. Mycoplasma diseases rate has been determined as 4.86% and 5.63% in the last vine killing and first vine killing respectively. So the first vine killing has advantages including the reduction of mycoplasma diseases
7- Eastern Anatolia Region Potato Breeding Project (1988-----)
The major objectives of the Eastern Anatolia Region Potato Breeding Program are: (1) to develop new potato cultivars with increased yield, improved quality, improved nutritional and health characteristics, resistance to diseases and pests, and tolerance to environmental stresses; (2) to collaborate with growers and research/extension personnel to assess the production, adaptability, marketability and other characteristics of advanced selections from this breeding program; (3) to provide a basic seed source by tissue culture method for Eastern Anatolia and other potato growing regions. The progress of the program relies on traditional breeding techniques.
8- Developing of organic potato production systems of the Eastern Anatolia Region (2003-2005)
Granola potato variety was used for experimental material due to its higher adaptability and widespread planting in this area. And also two different commercial organic fertilizer (Biofarm and Abalıoğlu) were used. The results of two-year average showed that yield, application and yield x application interaction was highly significant.
9- Oilseed crops adaptation projects
The aim of this project was to evaluate the adaptation capacity of some sunflower and safflower varieties obtained from Trakya Agricultural Research Institute/Edirne and Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute / ESKİŞEHİR, respectively.
10- Evaluation of the competition level of weeds in potato cultivated area in Erzurum
This project was studied to identify critical period for weed management in potato cultivated area in Pasinler/Erzurum region. Weed control has turned out to be very important to obtain high potatoes yields. The results showed that effect of weed competition on potato yield started about 25. day after crop emergence (DAE) and about 70. DAE reached its maximum. Minimum value of potato yields were observed under the full weed-infestation condition. And also the most intensive species in potato fields were Chenopodium album L. subsp. album, Amaranthus retroflexus L., Convolvualus arvensis L., Seteria viridis (L.) P. Beauv., Sinapis arvensis L. ve Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.
11- Comparision of the seasonal variation of dry matter accumulation, specific gravity and starch content of different potato varieties
Four clones of the potato Granola, Caspar, Kondor and Pasinler-92 were laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Samples were taken of at 15 days intervals between August 18 to October 16. The result of the study indicated that there were significant variations in the performances of varieties in terms of dry matter, specific gravity and starch content
12- Territorial seed potato production system project (TUBITAK-1007/ 105G115; 2005-2009)
Turkey is one of the leading potato producer country in the world with approximately 160.000 ha planting area and 4,5 million tones production, annually. However, potato production in Turkey is fully depends on imported seed and cultivars due to lack of a national seed production system. This situation results a significant amount of money loss of the country every year. Moreover, lack of national seed production system causes usage of fewer amounts of certified seed as well as spreading of new pest to Turkey, which threaten the future of potato production in the country. Currently, usage of certified seed potato accounts only 10% of total potato seed used annually. Healthy potato seed usage is much more important in potato production than any other field crops. Since potato is propagated as vegetatively, it can be easily infected by any diseases and sensitive to pest and pathogen attacks. Potato seeds are the highest cost of potato production. It was aimed to establishment a "National Seed Potato Production System" for Turkey with this project. The National Seed Potato Production Project includes three sub-projects: 1. Determination of seed potato production areas and keep the sustainability of these areas. 2. Arrangement of basic seed production programs. 3. Improvement of new potato varieties for table food and industrial purposes in different regions of Turkey. The project was conducted with cooperation of eight research institute from General Directorate of Agricultural Research and three universities during 46 months between 2005 and 2009. During the project, seventeen province in total (Sivas, Konya, Kayseri, Bayburt, Erzurum, Adana, Tokat, Eskişehir, Çorum, Çankırı, Erzincan, Kahramanmaraş, Kütahya, Uşak, Isparta, Burdur ve Niğde) was evaluated in respect to suitability for seed potato production. As a results of these evaluations, approximately 200.000 ha area from Sivas, Kayseri, Erzurum, Eskişehir, Kahramanmaraş, Erzincan, Tokat provinces was determined as suitable for seed potato production. These areas were registered and announced as seed potato production areas by the Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Affairs. In addition to these regions, it was found that some special areas such as Çamardı in Nigde province and Tufanbeyli in Adana province has also significant potential for seed potato production, and could be used for this purpose. Subproject of Arrangement of Basic Seed Production Programs was carried out by Niğde Potato Research Institute, Agean Agricultural Research Institute, East Anotolian Research Institute and Aegean University Faculty of Agriculture. Within the framework of this project, plot production facilities were established to produce basic stock in those four institutes and production started. During the project, NPRI, EAARI and AUAF were authorized as producer of seed potato by using tissue culture techniques whilst ETAE was authorized in the year 2003. İncase of any demand from seed potato companies, with their infrastructure and well trained stuff capacities all participating institutions became qualified to produce 10 % of basic potato seed demand in the first year and total amount of the imported potato seed in the 4th year. As a results of breeding studies in the project, significant achievements were obtained regarding breeding of national potato cultivars. Potato breeding infrastructure was established at the Nigde Potato Research Institute, which is the major institute for potato research in Turkey. The national potato breeding programmes was started and its maintaince was secured. At the end of the project, a lot of national potato lines from different crossing combinations at different stages (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th generations) was developed. It is possible to register the first commercial Turkish potato cultivars within these breeding lines after 2011. The project produced very useful outputs in respect to human resources. A lot of experts from both institutes at Client Directorate and universities was trained on different aspects of seed potato production (plant health, agronomy, tissue culture and biotechnology, basic seed production and multiplication, cultivar breeding, etc.) during the project activities. Consequently, the basic studies for development of a "National Seed Potato Production System" for Turkey was completed with the project. In next step, further studies should be conducted with new projects on different aspects of the seed potato production scheme for running and maintanence of the system. Furthermore, training and extension studies should be conducted to secure sustainability of the system.
13- Determination of relationship between economic parameters and harvest date in some genotypes of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. saccharifera) in Erzurum conditions (2013-2014)
The experiment studied the effect of three harvest times (1st and 3rd week of October, 1st week of November) on root and digestible sugar yield changes. The research was performed at Erzurum located on the East Anatolia region of Turkey during 2013-2014. Sugar beet cultıvar (15 units) belong to the N, Z, NZ type were obtained from private seed companies [BETA (Idaho, Tomcat, Eldorado, Zanzibar, Mohican, SR-380 (Rodeo), SR-374 (Lizard), SR-485); KWS (Maden, Aranka, Sandrina, Esperia, 9R27); SYNGENTA (Turbata, Sentinel)].
Statistical analysis of the data collected in this study, harvest time, varieties and years were hihgly significant effect (P <0.01) for all parameters measured. And also significant interactions were determined between varieties*years, varieties*harvest date and harvest date*years. The highest root and polar sugar yield were obtained from NZ-type genotype, the highest digestible sugar rate (18,25%) was determined at the last harvest of the sugar beet Z- type genotype, in 2013 when low temperature did not occur. Polar and digestible sugar rate were increased at all harvests.