In Bornova, Plant Protection Research Institute founded on February 15th, 1931 in order to investigate the pests in the crop plants and methods to control them, entomological studies began in the same year. Carrying out their jobs as Entomology Laboratory since its establishment, the Agricultural Engineers performed their studies on insects, mites, nematodes, some mammalians and birds with a few personnel in the first decade. Then, with increasing number of personnel, laboratories were founded under the title of "Entomology Department" and successful studies were done.
Duties of the Entomology Department are summarized below:
- Determining ways of diagnosis spread and control methods for the insects, mites, nematodes, mammalians, and birds causing problems in the crop plants,
- Conducting research projects and implementing the results through training and scientific publications,
- Collecting insects, mites, nematodes, mammalians and birds specific to the area,
- Participating in international organizations, preparing and conducting projects for plant health in the context of law of harmonization code of the European Union,
- Organizing national and international congresses, workshops, and meetings and participating in them with scientific reports,
- Being reporter in national and international journals,
- Preparing Technical Instructions for Plant Protection, Integrated Pest Management and "Standard Methods for Pesticide Efficacy and Side-Effect Tests on the insects, mites, nematodes, mammalians, and birds,
- Taking in charge in several commissions such as Commissions of Registration for Plant Protection Products and Plant Quarantine of the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock,
- Making risk analysis related to quarantine organisms and servicing to the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock as consultant on this topic,
- Cooperating with especially universities and union of exporters and other organizations,
- When required, investigating biological efficiency of the pesticides and biotechnical materials,
- Training staff employed on section of plant protection in the related implementing organizations and preparing books, brochures, manuals, etc.,
- Giving practical training to the students of agricultural faculties,
- Giving free service of consultancy to the farmers on the area,
- Preparing training and publications on entomology topics for the Extensive Farmer Training Program prepared for the farmers by the Ministry,
- Performing dose escalation or reduction studies for the pesticides,
- Monitoring experimentations of biological efficiency of plant protection products,
- Investigating plant materials coming from abroad for experimental or commercial purposes in terms of quarantine,
- Carrying out analyses related to the certified fruit and grape production and propagation material in Turkey.
Fruit and Vineyard Pests Lab
Laboratory of Fruit Pests has been carrying out studies on pests in important crop groups of the Aegean Region since 1931. As a consequence of these studies, important findings were obtained and implemented especially in apple, citrus, olive, peanut, cherry and fig. Integrated Pest Management projects were created under the guidance of results obtained. The use of pesticides was minimized by estimating required application dates with Forecasting and Early-Warning System. Biotechnical, biological control and organic agriculture studies were carried out parallel to current studies on the world and these were transferred to the farmers. As of yet, many projects are being performed in cooperation with several organizations, especially with union of exporters and the universities. Far-East countries, Japan in particular, is not purchasing fresh fruits and vegetables from Turkey because our country is contaminated with Mediterranean fruit fly. Studies performed by Laboratory of Fruit Pests with the support of different Exporters' Unions came to end in 2009 and grapefruit and lemon exportation from Turkey to Japan began in 2010 and 2014, respectively. This scientific study conducted by Bornova Plant Protection Research Institute is the first in Turkey and has been beneficial for entire country.
Studies were carried out in the Laboratory of Grape Pests on such pests as European Grapevine Moth, thrips species, two spotted spidermites, Black Vine Weevils, Mealy Bug preventing obtaining crop and causing economic losses for the farmers if not controlled and on their biological characteristics, natural enemies, spreads, losses caused by and methods to control them; resultant findings were implemented. Furthermore, studies on the strawberry areas, which are subject to studies of the laboratory, were completed and non-biotic factors on biology and mechanism of loss of Black Vine Weevils in the strawberries were investigated. In addition to several plant protection projects, the laboratory participated in studies on management and population changes of grape pests in the projects of Organic Sultani Seedless Growing and Organic Wine Grape Growing. Forecasting and Early-Warning System has been implemented against European Grapevine Moth "Lobesia botrana Den.-Schiff., Lepidoptera: Tortricidae" which is the main pest. Timing of preparations effective against the eggs of the pest in the Forecasting and Early-Warning System has been practiced. Timing, methods of use and dose of preparations with environmentally friendly Bacillus thuringiensis against European Grapevine Moth in Aegean Region was established. As an alternative to the chemicals, mechanical control method has been put into practice for the control of black vine weevil, "Otiorhynchus spp.". Mating Disruption Technique, an alternative to the chemicals in the control of European Grapevine Moth has been found to be successful and implemented in especially organic and integrated vineyards. Afterwards, Mating Disruption Technique has been widened to a total of 700 ha in cooperation with growers and companies of organic dried grape in the Aegean Region. Based on the results of all research studies, Project of Integrated Pest Management in Vineyards has been implemented since 1995. Each of the three five-year period of the project has been conducted in cooperation with agricultural extension services and private companies. New findings obtained from the research studies are included in the Integrated Pest Management Programs.
Natural enemies of L. botrana and their natural effectiveness have been determined in the vineyards of Manisa and Izmir Provinces. In this study, Trichogramma euproctidis Girault and T. brassicae Bezdenko "Hym: Trichogrammatidae", the egg parasitoids, have been specifically determined on the eggs of L. botrana and recorded for the first time. At present, experiments on releasing parameters and effectiveness of T. euproctidis have been conducting in the vineyards for the implementation of biological control.
Post-harvest control of Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande "Thysanoptera: Thripidae" has been accomplished in Round Seedless grape and Camarosa strawberry varieties in cold storage conditions due to refusal of infested fresh fruit items and as a consequence of that, prohibition of export from Turkey. The dosage and duration of phosphine (PH3) gas were determined, which killing 100% of F. occidentalis population. Fumigation standard pesticide method was prepared for postharvest control of F. occidentalis in stored fresh fruit and vegetables.
Vegetable, Forage Crops, Industrial and Ornamental Plant Pests Lab
National and regional studies were carried out on such vegetables as edible legumes, cabbage, artichoke, tomato, cucumber, eggplant, potato, pumpkin by the laboratory of pests in the vegetables and forage crops, and the pests causing problems in these vegetables and main pests of economic interest were determined and crop loss was prevented by developing control methods against them.
In the context of integrated Pest Management project conducted in greenhouse vegetable cultivation, crop has been obtained with few or no use of pesticides in greenhouse cultivation in the Aegean Region. Yellow adhesive traps which are pretty effective in mass trapping considered in biotechnical methods developed in context of this project has been begun to be used widely in the Aegean Region. In a study supported by FAO, attempts were made in greenhouse cultivation in 2002-2003 in Fethiye, Mugla in order to implement results of integrated growing and protection studies to minimize chemical inputs in greenhouse tomato cultivation, to teach them to the farmers and to spread them. In another study to create integrated crop management program in greenhouse tomato cultivation in Mugla between 2002 and 2004, cooperation was made with university and private sector, many sub-disciplines worked together, and as a consequence of these efforts, Integrated Crop Management Program was established in greenhouse tomato cultivation.
Improvement of National Patato Seed Production system project supported by TUBİTAK was carried out in Kütahya, Burdur and Isparta in 2005-2009. Seed potato areas were determined.
The national project of Tuta absoluta "Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae" was carried out by the coordinator of vegetable and forage pests laboratoryof Bornova Plant Protection Institute.In sub-projects, distribution, biotechnical control methods and natural enemies of Tuta absoluta were determined.
Effectiveness of Pheromone+water traps in field tomato production in Izmir and Manisa provinces in Aegean Region and pheromone+water, pheromone+light+water traps in the greenhouse tomato production in Muğla Province were determined against T. absoluta for mass-trapping method. The project results were presented to the farmers.
In the Aegean Region, laboratory for industrial and ornamental plants pests researches has carried out projects on industrial plants such as cotton, tobacco, sunflower, poppy, sesame, and ornamental plants such as daffodils, roses, carnations and chrysanthemums. Information form the results, such as identification, biology, natural enemies, distributions, damage and control methods of the pests, were transferred to the application
Biology of Cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Glov.) (Homoptera: Aphididae), which is one of the economic pests in cotton, and affecting factors of population fluctuation, were carried out and the data were transferred to the application.
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Project was completed in cotton and the project results were shared with the Aegean Region farmers. IPM booklets in Cotton was prepared.
The Farmer Booklet of Tobacco Pests were distributed to the Aegean Region farmers . Main pest and the other harmful species of Thyme were determined in Denizli and Manisa provinces.
An important source of income for Karaburun district, daffodil, has a major problem is daffodil bulbs fly has an effective method of combating hot water application which is not prevalent among the producers that demonstrates was set up.
The project was carried out about population fluctuations on sucking pests and their effects in terms of yield and quality on some common cotton varieties in Aegean Region. The preference of varieties according to hairiness traits against to sucking pests that can be used in integrated pest management programs have been determined.
In addition, in the laboratory, biotechnical control projects have been carried out in parallel with current researches in the world. To minimize the pesticide application against thrips species, the projects are about efficiency of using kaioromones with sticky traps and mass trapping method on cotton and cut flowers has been carriying out.
Cereal, Stored Product and General Pests Lab
Cereal pests laboratory has been carrying out studies on the pests in grain areas of the Aegean Region since 1931. Through the studies carried out so far, important findings have been obtained and implemented on the pests in grain areas of the Region and ways to control them. In regard to control of Eurygaster which is the main pest for the agriculture of grain in our country, biological criteria for its winter quarters, species, rates, natural enemies and control methods have been determined. In this context, regular manual training was given to technical staff in responsibility area of our Directorship (Balikesir, Çanakkale, Manisa,Usak, Denizli, Aydin, Mugla, Izmir, and Kutahya) and a book titled "Eurygaster Control in the Aegean Region" was published and distributed to the technical staff. Integrated Pest Management projects were prepared for wheat and corn, and these works were done in cooperation with many farmers. The resultant gains were presented to agriculture applications in our country through technical instruction manuals. Biotechnical and biological control studies carried out parallel to current investigations on the world were presented to the farmers in the region. In the context of NationalEurygaster Project carried out in recent years, crop losses caused by Eurygaster species "Eurygaster spp., Heteroptera: Scutelleridae" in the Aegean Region and economical damage thresholds that should make the basis for chemical control were determined.
Studies began to be conducted in a separate laboratory through foundation of Laboratory of Stored Product Pests in 1941. Studies are continuing in the laboratory since its establishment. In Denizli and Usak cities, projects were conducted on Bruchidae family and damage caused by it in stored legumes. Projects are continuing on species, distribution and density of Coleoptera and Lepidoptera genus in dried grape stored in Manisa and Izmir cities.
General Pests laboratory; re-establishment of the laboratory has become compulsory with the increasing problems of Aegean Region.
Many surveys have been conducted by Nematology Laboratory of Bornova Plant Protection Research Institute since 1960s. These studies made the basis of several comprehensive studies which would be conducted later. In the context of these projects, contamination status of the root tumor nematodes causing problems in the fruits and vineyards, citrus nematode "Tylenchulus semipenetrans", hookedworms "Xiphinema spp." was investigated in the gardens and nurseries. Studies were carried out in the potato areas on potato rot nematode "Ditylenchus destructor" and potato cyst nematodes "Globodera spp.". Effect of solarization was studied in the control of root tumor nematodes which are one of the biggest problems in vegetable greenhouses in the region, polyethylene covering with orgalloy additive was tried to be used in the greenhouses in the region in order to reduce dose of methyl bromide and pretty good results were obtained. In the studies on rice white-tip nematode "Aphelenchoides besseyi", which is the quarantine pest causing important problems in rice areas in our region, 100% of the nematodes in the contaminated roots were killed using hot water method. An important impact of this study was that the mentioned nematode was included in the list of diseases and pests for rice suitable for seed. Laboratory staff took active participation in the projects supported by the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock in addition to such extraneously supported projects as Twining Projects conducted in the context of law of harmonization with the European Union, and those supported by TUBITAK and World Bank. Infrastructure equipment of the laboratory was enhanced by means of opportunities obtained in this way.