Cool Climate Cereals

​About​ Department 

         Cool Climate Cereals is the preliminary department of East Anatolia Agricultural Research İnstitute had been established since 1969s and studies have been continuing by expanding so far.

Cereals have share above 80 percent in Turkey, as strategic importance of these plants species, in our region still is consisted  80 percent  of farmlands so that make production of cold climatic cereals that  is emphasized importance of these studies. Wheat has an important area agricultural of Turkey, in the North East Anatolia Region total cultivation area of wheat has  517.000 hectares that area is being  involved from Erzurum province, total wheat area of East Anatolia Region has 820.000 hectares. Average decare yield is 150-170 kgs/da. Livestock is the main source of income in the region, cultivable lands are undersize and fragmental, economic potential and knowledge level of farmers are low; these situations make difficult to enter mechanizations, modern agricultural techniques, and new varieties for region. İn spite of registered varieties have more two-fold yield potantial  than landraces, in this region use of landraces is at a level of approximately 60 percent that these landraces have yield potential low, decrease of resistance to winter, and susceptible for diseases. İn this region  our studies have been rapidly continuing to improve eguality wheat, barley and triticale variaties at the same time which high yield potantial, resistant of desiases and pests, more resistant of cold and drought. İn addition to this, limiting factors production of these species must be minimized. İmprovement of cold resistant varieties will be supplied an enormous contribution both a major yield increasing and for national economy.  İn our country improving studies had been initiated by our institute which about cold resistant wheat species, requisite projects had been desinged for these studies even had been aimed to carry out dimension in national and international, plus these studies had been presented to Ministry of Development and is being supposed to endorsement.

Wheat yield  will be increased in this region by means of adopt to farmers of registered varieties,  thus will be supplied an enormous contribution both producer and national economy. Besides that cooperating with Provincial Directorate of Agricultures, private sectors, universities, and farmers at least 50 percent with yield increasing region production to increase is one of the another important objectives.

İn consequence of conducted breeding studies for dry conditions 8 varieties winter bread wheat ( ŞAHİN, PALANDÖKEN-97, ALPARSLAN, NENEHATUN, KIRİK  and AYYILDIZ ), and for irrigated conditions 3 varieties bread wheat ( KARASU-90, YILDIRIM and DAPHAN ), 1 variety winter barley ( OLGUN ), and 1 variety winter triticale ( ÜMRANHANIM ) by developing  to service of region farmers had been presented. Breeding studies have been continuing to improve new equality varieties which cold resistant and higher yield. İn addition of breeding studies growing technique, biotic and abiotic factors to resistant variety improvement studies have been maintained concurrantly.

In our country cold resistance wheat varieties improving searches has been started in our institute. Cold Hardiness Test Center was established by our ministry in our institute in order to move these searches both national and international dimension, and it has started serving since 2016. İn This center to be conducted in national and international studies will also contribute to researchs in the form of purchase of services, in this center can be run as Project partner.​

Seed Production

Wheat, barley, and triticale varieties as pedigree, orijinal and certified seed productions are produced by our institute. At the same time Ümranhanım triticale and Ayyıldız wheat varieties that partial production to right had been transferred to BÜKE Agriculture İncorporated Company, this company can be responded to seed needs (

Durability  To Diseases

 One purpose of our studies is to improve variety resistant to diseases. Appearence rust diseases in our region, snow mould and against other diseases resistant are selection criterions, presented varieties to register have been targeted so that to require tolerant or resistant against to diseases.

Staff of Department

Dr.Ümran KÜÇÜKÖZDEMİR     Agriculture Engineer​, M.​sc​        0(442) 327 14 40 -41/3000       ​  ​ umrankucukozdemir@​​​​

Berrin DUMLU​                  ​​             ​​ ​Agriculture Engineer​, M.​sc​        0(442) 327 14 40 -41/3011 

Ufuk TOZLU ​                         ​​   ​​    ​Biologist                                ​​​         ​0(442) 327 14 40 -41​    /3007        

Pictures of Department 




Ongoing Project

East  Anatolia Barley Breeding Project

The aim of this project  is to develop highly efficient barley varieties  in the breeding studies of Eastern Anatolia Region dominant climatic and soil factors that provide the best adaptation, resistant to winter, drought and diseases, desired properties in a quality and in every aera sown and in the condition in terms of efficiency are exposed to very little fluctuations. The main purpose in the breeding programs is to develop a witer variety for suitable winter sowing that can be taken two times more productive than spring sowings in arid areas. Besides, currently due to in the absence of a winter varieties almost all applied irrigation field to suitable spring sowing that another objective is to develop an efficient varieties. İn studies  a good pre-winter emergence and a good snow cover in recent years when occured, in addition winter barley genotypes have been determined that has the high yield potantial to be able to get efficiency according to spring genotypes in high groundwater areas.

We believe that respond to these needs when developed winter and spring barley varieties because of serious deficit of concenrate feed and having livestock in our region. Barley is the most important cereal for our region so barley breeding programs will be improved and will be studied for yielding varieties registration to suitable for region. A barley genotype was sent to common regional yield trial by our institute in 2005. Barley is an important food source on animal feed in the Eastern Anatolia Region.

 İn our region total cereal sowing area is 1.2 million hectares and barley sowing area is about 310.000 hectares. Again, in our region barley production is 415.000 tons and yield is 134.1 kg/ decar (Anon., 1996 ). İn our region total barley cultivation area consist approximately 8.5 percent of country, while the national average yield is 134.1 kg/ acres, this figure is 1201.1 kg/ hectares. İncreased yield can be achieved by reducing negative factors limiting yield or increasing genetic yield potantial. The aim of this project  is to develop highly efficient barley varieties  in the breeding studies of Eastern Anatolia Region dominant climatic and soil factors that provide the best adaptation, resistant to winter, drought and diseases, desired properties in a quality and in every aera sown and in the condition in terms of efficiency are exposed to very little fluctuations.  İn breeding programs with these objectives winter and spring barley varieties will be developed that both in our country and abroad obtained from barley lines and varieties.

East Anatolia Wheat Breeding Programme

                Wheat is  the most  important product in our region as in our country. Accordingly the porpuse of project  is to develop highly efficient wheat varieties  in the breeding studies of Eastern Anatolia Region dominant climatic and soil factors that provide the best adaptation, resistant to winter, drought and diseases, desired properties in a quality and in every aera sown and in the condition in terms of efficiency are exposed to very little fluctuations consequently to increase yield and production of region. İn the region germanation planting varieties has more yielding performance than spring varieties in breeding programs developing varieties are also always in this direction. For this porpuse in the breeding programs are carried out for developing varieties that absolute winter character, quality, and high efficiency varieties proceeding with introduction material and material resulting from our work

Cereal is groups of product that  have the most cultivation area in the world and the cereals constitute about 95 percent of total cultivation area. Cereal cultivation area constitute 80 percent ( 820.000 hectares wheat and 330.000 hectares barley ) of available fields in the Eastern Anatolia Region and also 119 kg /acres  yield is taken from wheat. The regional yields are much lower than national average ( 216 kg/acres wheat and 224 kg/acres barley) ( Anonim 1999).  One of the causes of low productivity is the application freezing sowing or spring sowing. İn studies was determined where annual precipitation is under 600 mm yield obtained from winter sowing are more than from spring sowing.

            Cereal crops are relation to machinery easily and completely and this case producers of region are directed mainly to agricultural of these products. Also compensation of ability to have very high to eliminate growers errors and negative conditions in a certain percentage and gives a different place to the cereal in crop plants. İncreasing yield of cereal that have the most cultivation area in our region will be provided to benefit with the best way from the unit area.

Lancer in 1977, Odeskaya-51 in 1985, Hawk in 1987, Doğu-88 and Karasu 90 in 1990 (  for irrigation conditions ) has been developed. İn conclusion of breeding studies Palandöken-97 ( white grain ) in 1997 was registered have been offered to region farmers. Alparslan ( red grain ) and Nenehatun ( white grain ) in 2001, for irrigation conditions Daphan ( white grain ) and Yıldırım in 2001 varieties have been developed. Varieties developed for dry conditions can be obtained yield 250-400 kg/ acres and varieties developed for irrigation conditions can be obtained yield 500-700 kg/ acres. İn 2005 local varieties Kırik was summitted for registration in order to gene conservation and in 2010 has been registered with the same name. Since 2006 cold- resistant varieties development studies have been carried out in our institute and in conclusion of these studies Ayyıldız wheat varieties was registered in 2011 that this type is both cold resistant and high yielding wheat varieties for arid conditions. Production right of this variety has been sold partially to BÜKE Agricultural Company in case of demand for seed can be connected with this company.

East Anatolia Triticale Breeding Project

Dry farming system is dominated case in Eastern Anatolia Region as well as in Turkey, the cereals has an important place in this system. İn addition,  539.174 hectares of total regional areas 13.621.000 hectares  is unfavorable case that grown many agricultural products in the region (Anon.,1996). That is, 24 percent of total region land can not be used in the present situation. On the other hand from per unit area yieldind is very low. Therefore a significant shortfall is mention the subject both in the blanced diet of people and in the provision of fodder for livestock. İn this case the cereals has the greatest potantial  need both food and in the gap fodder in Turkey as well as in the world

 Due to intensive agriculture limitations and possible climatic changes the production increase will not be easy  to the extent to feed the growing world population. Therefore to avoid causing a global disaster in today’s marginal soils that will be more efficient plants should be grown. Such  plants are able to provide the high efficiency with low inputs in such areas. Additional source of income will be provided for region farmers if the appropriate portion of unused agriculture land evaluate planted triticale. The main goal in obtaining triticale is to combine the ability to grow in rye extreme conditions and the yield and quality of wheat.

So far, a triticale cultivar is not existing that developed for our region the variety development studies continue intensely. Tatlıcak triticale cultivars has been registered by the Bahri Dagdaş İnternational Agricultural Research İnstitute has been provided a good adaptation to the region that this variety had been contributed significantly to adopt triticale by farmers. Triticale cultivars plant as winter sowing and can be recommended for dry conditions at the same time due to having nutritional of barley and triticale is a concentrated feed plant that can substitute the spring sown barley. Since 1999 triticale breeding studies have been carried out in corporation with CIMMYT, ICARDA, and  BDIARI

İn the five trial sites of our institute where are Pasinler, Ilıca, Muş, Erzincan and Van , in the two trial sites with during two years (1999-2000, 2000-2001) as winter and spring for arid conditions before 6 hexaploid triticale genotypes in winter that has a good adaptability and high efficency was determined by Atatürk University, had been tested 8 hexaploid triticale genotypes in spring in locations of Ilıca, Pasinler, Erzincan, Van, and Muş and in conclusion of this study spring triticale sowings have been founded not to be hopeful but winter sowings are hopeful.  However, in this experiment  the genotypes studied had been eliminated not are qualified to be bocome stage of type however providing material from both domestic and abroad reproducing studies has been increased change of selection. So far in the breeding studies was determined that at least the affected of triticale from adverse environment and soil conditions. İt also reveals the fact that triticale varieties can spread rapidly to the region. We believe that triticale to be able to respond to this need due to a serious shortfall of concentrate feed and having livestock in our region. For this porpuse, as a result of breeding programs named Ümranhanım triticale varieties had been registered in 2010. Production right of this variety has been sold partially to BÜKE Agricultural Company in case of demand for seed can be connected with this company. Triticale is the great important for our region because triticale studies will be increased and suitable and yielding varieties will continue to be registered for our region.

Resulted Projects 

Determination of Amounts Applications Nitrojen and Phosphorus in LANCER Variety Winter Bread Wheat in Erzurum Arid Conditions

Ali Safi KIRAL1Hasan ÖZCAN1

İn this study was aimed to determine doses of phosphorus and nitrojen which requires for plants through 1986-1988s in an effort to gain optimum yield in wheat;  had been applicated doses of P2O5  0, 3, 6, 9 kg and 0 ,5, 10, 15, 20 kg nitrojen. İn the experiment, LANCER wheat variety had been used that experiment had been conducted as 3 replications in accordance with randomized bloks experimental design. İn consequence of study had been found out to use that is necessary 6 kg/da N and 6 kg/da P2O5 to gain optimum yield.

 The Effects of Grain Yield Of  Wheat Varieties of Different Sowing Times  Erzurum in Arid Conditions

    Hasan ÖZCANAysun ACAR1

       Sowing time is one of the most  important factors affecting the yield of wheat.  This research was carried out as a split-plot desing based on 3 replications between 1990-1991s. LANCER wheat varieties were used in the experiment. İn this study  were investigated effects of different sowing times on wheat yield. İn the trial was investigated effects on the yield of wheat ( August 15- September 1, September 1 to 15, and 15 September – 1 October ) in three different planting times. As a result of research  was determined  the maximum efficiency can be obtained by making the cultivation between September 1 to 15.  Also the sowing time delay has been found to occur significant decreases in yield.


Determination of The Most Appropriate Tillage Time in Fallow- Wheat System East Anatolia Region

Hakan Mete DOĞAN1Murat OLGUN1Telat YILDIRIM1

This research was conducted at three locations in East Anatolia Region ( Erzurum Central, Aşkale and Ilıca ) in the fallow-wheat system four different tillage time and tested the combination of two different instruments. The trial was carried out as a split-plot desing based on three replications between 1989-1990s. İn the experiment, the fall ( October- November), early spring ( April 15- May 15 ), late spring ( May 15- June 15 ) and summer ( after June 15 ), including four different tillage cultivation of time; crowbar + harrow and disk harrow + packer or the combination of two instruments and also were used Lancer wheat variety. The effect of tillage times on grain yield when was highly significant (P<0.01), the effect on grain yield the combination of tools was found insignificant. And also between interaction tillage times and the combination of tools was found insignificant. According to the experiment results; soil should be cultivated in early spring ( April 15- May 15 ).

Determination of İrrigation time, Fertilizer Application and Doses of Nitrogenous Fertilizer in Karasu-90 Wheat Varieties 


Fertilization and irrigation are the most important inputs to obtain in terms of optimum yield on wheat. İn a study conducted for this purpose in wheat in irrigated conditions at which time irrigation should be done; also was conducted the experiment to determine the amount of nitrojen in need of wheat in irrigated conditions separately from arid conditions. The experiment was conducted as randomized blocks experimental desing based on three replication between 1992-1994s and Karasu-90 bread wheat varieties were used in the experiment that was developed for irrigated conditions. İn the experiment three irrigation time ( with sowing, bolting and flowering ), two irrigation time ( with sowing, bolting, flowering ) an one irrigation time ( with sowing, bolting, flowering ); 0 -5- 10- 15- 20 kg N/da fertilizer doses were tested. According to the results in order to optimum efficiency for per decare 10 kgs half of nitrojen with sowing, the other half was determined that must be taken during bolting. On the other hand or difficulties in the supply of irrigation water with sowing, during the flowering and be milking period should be done three irrigation; if irrigation water is scarce a time period after flowering period it’s known  milking period was determined that should be given at the begining.

Determination of  Resistance to Cold in Some Barley and Wheat Genotypes Grown in East Anatolia Region


​                İn this study was carried out to determine the degrees of cold resistance some bread wheat and barley genotypes suitable for East Anatolia Region. Research was conducted in factorial arrangement ‘’ randomized blocks’’ according to experimental design; in East Anatolia Agricultural Research İnstitute laboratory, and Atatürk University of Agricultural Faculty ( Department of Crop Plants, Horticulture and Soil Sience ). İn the experiment were used from bread wheat varieties 88, Karasu 90, Hawk, Palandöken 97, Lancer, Kıraç 66, Gerek 79, Bezostaja 1, Norstar and landrace Kırik and Tir varieties with advanced stage four bread wheat lines; and as barley varieties are Tokak 157/37, Bülbül 89, Dicktoo, Krusevac 1 and Hudson with advanced stage four barley lines. Hoagland solution was used fort he growing of plants. Plants were kept 0 ( control ), 7, 21, 35, 49, 70 and 98 days, in temperature 4±0.2 °C to adjust  to cold. Determination of resistance to cold  the method modified  was used  that was applied by Fowler ve ark. (1995).

Generally, were determined in low temperatures genotypes of bread wheat to be more resistant than genotypes of barley. Norstar of bread wheats was the most durable variety in the low temperature (-13 °C), Kıraç-66 and Kırik varieties were the most sensitive ( respectively -5.4 ve -4.9 °C ). İn genotypes of barley Dicktoo (-4.9 °C), Krusewak 1 and 12/127 (-4.7 °C) were the most resistant in the low temperatures, Bülbül 89 (-3.9 °C) was determined to be the most susceptible varieties. İn the research genotypes of red grain bread wheat (Doğu 88, Hawk, Lancer, Karasu 90, Bezostaja 1, Norstar and DE-6) has been more to cold resistance than white grain genotypes (Palandöken 97, Kırik, Tir, DE-7, DE-8, DE-9, Gerek 79 and Kıraç 66). Bread wheat genotypes reached 49 days in cold acclimation period with the highest ability to withstand the cold (average -10.8 °C), this period was 35 days in barley (average -5.7 °C).

Determination of The Most Appropriate Tillage Systems İn East Anatolia Dry Conditions


       Different rotation systems ( wheat- wheat, vetch- wheat, fallow- wheat, chemical fallow- wheat and vetch- fallow-wheat ) and tillage tools ( with plow, chisel, Anatolia plow and no-till ) on wheat and vetch effects of yield and yield parameters were determined that was established  in the trial between 1999-2001s, as a randomized blocks splt-plot based on three replicaions.

        Effect on yield on  wheat ( grain ) and vitch ( fodder ) of tillage tools while found insignificant, the effect of crop rotation systems on wheat yield is most important, was determined was determined as insignificant on yield of vitch. İn wheat crops before winter emergence rate of tillage methods, heading and maturation period, spike number per m². the weight and number of grains per spike, while found was the most important effect on volume weight of soil on wheat, wet gluten, on wheat and vetch soil moisture and organic matter content, the effect was determined as significant. Similarly in the rotation systems spike number per m², the weight and number of grains per spike, crude protein yield, on wheat while found the most important on effect soil moisture and organic matter content, volume weight of soil on wheat and effect on organic matter content was found as significant in soil.

       According to these results and to the ecomonic analyses;  no-till has the highest and the most profitable yield, vitch- fallow- wheat and chemical fallow- wheat are applications. İn the East Anatolia Region, livestock is mainly depended on agriculture because of vitch- fallow- wheat rotation system is recommended for zero tillage.

Determination of Appropriate Triticale Lines and Varieties For East Anatolia Region


       İn five separate experiment sites of our institute where these areas are  Pasinlar, Ilıca, Erzincan, Muş and Van, in dry conditions summer and winter varieties in two separate trials for two years (1999-2000, 2000-2001) in the experiment was conducted by Atatürk University 6 hexaploid triticale genotypes have the highest yield and good adaptability as winter varieties, 8 hexaploid triticale genotypes that grown as summer varieties were tested in Ilıca, Pasinler, Erzincan, Van and Muş locations.  Triticale varieties and lines used in the research on average number of spike per m2, grain yield, total yield, thuosand grain weight, hectoliter weight, grain protein content and grain protein yield parameters are low when compared with wheat, but these mesaures are very close to be obtained from wheat. Triticale average was found higher than wheat in terms of lenght of spike and grain yield per spike. When consedering number of spike per m2  11, 18 genotypes; when consedering grain yield, grain protein yield and 11 genotpype; in terms of harvest index 18, 19, 24 genotypes; in terms of thousond grain weight 24 genotype were found as more significant than wheat genotypes; but all triticale genotypes were determined the lower than wheat genotypes. Besides, according to the results of stability analyse no.11 line was determined the most stable genotype. İn the conclusion of this research, winter sowings were determined they were hopeful nevertheless summer tricale varieties are not suitable for our region. However, in this study used none of genotypes have no qualify  to be come to kind of step that genotypes had been eliminated also by providing materials  both domestic and abroad  within the scope of Triticale Breeding Project Researches were decided to proceed. At the end of this period that better than wheat genotypes after coming to kind level, and  could be recommended to sowe in dry conditions where there is no sufficiently productive for wheat varieties.

          Resistant to Cold Variety Development Researches East Anatolia Region in Winter Bread Wheat   (TÜBİTAK)



          Cold resistance is increasing when prolonged  the cold acclimation period.  At the end of the cold acclimation period ( 0, 21, 35 and 49 days ) when considering  degrees of temperatures that are exposed plants maximum vitality ratio was determined  after 49 days the cold acclimation period. On the other hand between  - 3°C and -13°C temperatures degrees of different temperature linearly  were determined to affect vitality ratios of genotypes. Survival temperature limit of plants grown in Hougland solution was determined as  13°C. Plants can not be survive after this degree. However, this temperature is expected to be likely decrease in soil conditions. Fort this reason in the new studies will be planned was decided to use soil conditions because of the difficulty of working in Hougland solution.

          Resistant to cold improvement genotypes takes for a long period with classical breeding methods for our region. Besides negative climation conditions occupy as a restricting factor in terms of selection. For this reason with finished this project was tested all genotypes that advanced levels yield and in region yield experiments, we have experienced the stage to be able to test our material in the early breeding stages. These advantages supply serious labour force, time and resource saving for us. Because test results present to eliminate a choise  use that disapproved level resistance of material without moving to the high stage. Besides, the high cold resistane, but other characteristics ( yield and yield components ) in terms of infertile genotypes using in the observation nursery the other lines durability characteristics to transfering studies supply significant contribution for our breeding researches.

İn addition to our regional studies within the scope of national and international breeding studies that resistance disclosed in these lines, in the established regional yield trial will be observed adaptation ability in the widespread country, besides in common centers was conducted in the national breeding experiments as parents using these lines resistance characteristics will be studied to transfer to the other genotypes.  With these lines the hybridization results obtained new lines will be sent to Research Organizations in other regions for cold damage seen in various F stages. Due to the success of this project resulted this study can move to widespread and within the framework the cold damage seen in regions breeding materials of Research İntitutes  to be tested the development of a large-scale national project will supply the major contribution for national wheat breeding researches. Breeding material of other institutes will be tested with the new project to be prepared and also will help selection to be made in terms of cold resistance.

Taking into account natural conditions of Erzurum and existing cold resistance infrastructure of our institute and experienced staff employed, to become Cold Resistance Test Center of our institute will play a mojor role in national and international breeding researches.

Certified Products ​

KARASU 90: It is a stringless type whit red grains and recommended for wetland conditions. The productivity of it is 550-600 kg/da.


DOĞU 88: It is a stringy type with red grains and recommended for arid conditions. Its productivity is 300-350 kg/da.


LANCER:  It is a stringy type with red grains and recommended for arid conditions. Its productivity is 300-350 kg/da.


PALANDÖKEN 97: It is a stringy type with white grains and recommended for arid conditions. Its productivity is 300-350 kg/da.


ALPARSLAN: It is a stringy type with red grains and recommended for arid conditions. Its productivity is 300-350 kg/da.

YILDIRIM: It is a stringy type with white grains and recommended for wetland conditions. Its productivity is 600-700 kg/da.


The Technologıcal Features Of Wheat Types


PALANDÖKEN 9779,53952,114,234,0



Date Of Regıster: 2011

Agricultural Features:

•It is a medium early rise type

•It is resistant to cold, winter and aridity

• It has a high quality of shoots

•It is first class in terms of bread production quality

• It is inclination resistant

•It reacts positively to fertilizer

•It is resistant to yellow and black rust

•Productivity features: 350-400 kg/da

• It is recommended for arid conditions



The production of barley is limited in our region because of the winter hazards. For this reason, Ümranhanım triticale is an alternative feed crop for winter over barley.


Date of register: 2010

Agricultural Features:

• It is a more productive forage crop in barren areas where the annual precipitation is insufficient

• It is more productive in the barren regions where the depth of soil is less and the winters are severer than the wheat is.

• It is an annual plant. Therefore, it is advantageous over other forage crops

• It is durable against cold and drought

• It reacts to the fertilizers positively

• It is resistant to all diseases that are observed in barley and wheat


Technological Features:

• Thousand grains weight: 35-45 g

• Hectolitre Weight: 73-77 kg/hl

• The percentage of protein: 10-16 %

• Crude fat: 1,5-2,5 %

• Crude cellulose: 1,8-2,3 %


Date of register: 2011

Agricultural features;


•It is a medium early rise type and absolutely suitable for winter

•It is resistant to winter and cold

• It has a high quality of shoots

• It is inclination resistant

•It reacts positively to fertilizer

• Productivity features: 300-350 kg/da

• It is recommended for arid conditions

•It is moderate vulnerable to barley leaf spot and barley striped leaf spot

Technological Features:

• Hectolitre Weight: 65-73 kg/hl

• Thousand grains weight: 30-43 g

• The percentage of protein: 12-15 %

• Oversize: 18,8-87,1%;

• Undersize: 18,7-1,1%